Category Archives: Writing

First Draft

I recently read an article which featured interviews with 12 authors who answered a series of questions concerning the process of writing a first draft.  I wanted to add my own answers to this interesting topic.

  1. What does your first draft writing process look like?

The first draft of my novels are what I prefer to call a ‘zero’ draft.  This is a private version of the novel written only for myself; except for the occasional glimpses viewed by my cat when she jumps up to remind me that I have, yet again, written well past her dinner time.  This draft is full of errors, missing sections, crossed out words and notes such as: ‘add fight scene here,’ ‘research medieval clothing,’ or ‘check character’s eye colour.’  I tend to write the majority of my zero drafts by hand with a black or blue ink pen in a hard-back notebook.  The reason for this is that it allows me to write without seeing the mistakes which most computer programmes would highlight and allows me to write more fluidly.

My long-time mentor once told me that the most important element of a ‘zero’ draft is simply to reach a point in the story where a writer can identify a beginning, middle, and end.  If this is achieved, then something great has been accomplished.  It is only after this is completed that I even begin to consider writing a ‘first’ draft.  This transition involves filling in all the missing scenes, researching any topic where questions arose, and checking for consistency in both locations and the physical description of characters.  It does not consist of technical editing, but instead only focuses upon filling in the gaps and research of the story.  I only focus on more technical changes (such as grammar, spelling, and punctuation) once these initial changes are complete.

2.How long does it take to write a first draft?

This really depends upon the amount of research involved with the novel.  My most recently published story, Rise of the Temple Gods: Heir to Kale, took approximately two years to write.  The first year was devoted almost entirely to research.  My fantasy world involves a society which revolves around swordplay and martial arts – subjects of which I knew little.  Because of this, it was necessary to conduct a great deal of research before I could make the world come to life.  The sequels, on the other hand, should prove a much quicker process because of the research already being completed for the first novel.

I also believe that one of the most important elements to writing a first draft is to ensure that time is set aside every day to write.  The exact amount of time may vary from person to person, but the repetition of daily writing is very important to reaching the overall goal of completing a first draft.

3.What are your first draft stumbling blocks and how do you overcome them?

The most difficult part for me in writing an initial draft is to resist the temptation to pause and correct the previous paragraph.  I have a great urge to edit as a I write, and it took a long time to learn how to resist.  Changing my habit of writing a zero draft on the computer and transitioning to writing in a notebook helped me tremendously in overcoming this problem, as I no longer have my technical mistakes highlighted as I write.  This makes it easier to keep writing without backtracking every few sentences.

To read the article and see other author’s answers, feel free to click on this link: http://tammyfarrell.com/2014/02/03/how-12-different-authors-write-a-first-draft/

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Write What You Know, Learn What You Don’t

One of the most important requirements of writing well is putting forth the necessary effort to make scenes as realistic as possible.  One of the most common advice given to new writers is simple: ‘write what you know.’  It is advice that I agree with wholeheartedly, but would also add an addendum to the statement: ‘Write what you know, and learn what you don’t.’

First, description.  Detailed description of scenes can prove a vital element towards bringing a scene to life.  If you want to write a scene with your characters becoming lost in the woods, perhaps consider taking a walk in the forest.  Note the sounds you hear, the smells in the air, the way sunlight and shadows filter through the trees.  The same goes for a scene on the beach.  Walk along the waves, taste the salty air, feel the texture of the sand between your fingers.

If you don’t have the opportunity to go to these places yourself, read the works of those who have.  Extensive reading often proves to be a writer’s best resource.  Read descriptions of the places you plan to write about.  If you are writing about a real location, research its history, its layout, any other aspect which you may deem interesting or helpful within the research process.  If your location is fictional, consider finding ways to familiarize yourself with the land you are creating. One way of doing this is to consider writing side stories that deal with your world’s past or present.

One of my favourite memories as a young writer was attempting to compose a scene set in an old country bar before I was old enough to legally enter one.  Growing up in a small town, we like many similar locations, had a small saloon-style bar near the centre of town.  Expressing great difficulty in attempting to write something I had never experienced, the owner offered to open the large double doors, allowing me to observe a night at the bar.  Only after this was I able to write the scene with any sense of believability.

This is a method I used while composing my upcoming series, Rise of the Temple Gods.  The novel actually began as a short story which took place a generation after what would become the primary plot.  The main purpose of the piece became world-building.  Within it, I developed the fantasy land which my later characters would come to inhabit.  I discovered that the sky was violet, there were multiple suns in the sky, the trees came in multiple neon colours such as pink, blue, and orange.  Later, I would compose another short story, investigating my character’s childhood; learning about their upbringing, their values and their experiences.  This helped to shape the young adults who would come to dominate my forthcoming novels.

When I first began the novel, Heir to Kale, I had crafted a world in which one of the most important elements was combat; both hand to hand and swordplay.  When I first proposed this idea to my mentor, her first response was “Sounds Great!  Now, what do you know about swordplay?”  My answer: “Not much.”

This being the case, I spent the better part of the next year and a half conducting research.  This included not only reading books, both fiction and non, which featured scenes which used swordplay and martial arts, but also interviews with dojo masters, attending classes for beginners, and observing courses of students far more advanced.  Students and Masters alike graciously took the time out of their busy schedules to answers my questions.  Then, once I began writing, I found even more kindness when some of these men and women agreed to read the scenes I was writing, breaking down what worked and what did not, and explaining the reasons why in great detail.

Now as one can probably guess, this is not a quick process.  It is slow and time-consuming and different authors will approach it with various levels of both time and dedication.  However,  most find that in the end, such measures are well worth the work involved and are a vital part of the process needed to create a believable, rich tale.

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Developing the Story

I have written a lot over the past few months about the difficulties of writing, the research involved, and the endless dedication required in order to complete a long (and often complicated) piece of writing.  In light of this, I also find it equally important to talk about the more fun side of writing.  There are many enjoyable aspects of the writing process, however for me, I must say that one of my favourites, is discovering the plot of the story which often develops in unforeseen ways.

The first real attempt at writing creatively that I can recall was a short story written in the ninth grade.  Set in the same world which would later evolve to become the foundation for my first novel, The Indoctrination, the story was written for class and then placed in a state-wide writing competition.  Since that time, there has rarely been a point in my life where I have not had a pen in my pocket and a notebook nearby.  Writing for me is a mix of many elements.  It is a conductive way to channel my thoughts, emotions, and dreams onto the page.  My characters often take me on journeys that I never imagined, showing me worlds and places that I could never have explored on my own.

There are many different methods to writing.  Some authors, for example, George R.R. Martin, will plot their work from beginning to end long before actually writing a single paragraph.  They will often create character bios, draw maps and charts, or outline the course of the work before they begin.   Others take a more developmental route, beginning a tale with limited knowledge of its evolution or eventual end.

My personal style of writing favours the second method.  Stories often evolve organically, and sometimes even those who work so hard to pre-plan their stories find the plot going in a different direction than was originally planned.  Stories take twists and turns as characters reveal their thoughts a piece at a time.  They make unexpected choices, change their minds half-way through a tale, and on occasion, even come across new characters which I never intended to create.

The surprises that I find along the paths my characters walk are one of my favourite aspects of writing.  To write a scene with baited breath, unsure of how it will end, is, at least for me, one of the most magical and thrilling aspects of being a writer.

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To Harm or not to Harm the Protagonist – Part II

One of the questions I am frequently asked is how I can stand to harm the characters that I so lovingly created.  This answer is: not without difficulty.

Harming a character can, and often is, as emotionally draining upon the author as it is physically upon the character.  Harming characters forces me to take these creations which I have poured my time, work and soul into creating and consciously choose to put them through a form of hell.  These characters in question are my friends, my confidants – the ones who have shared with me their deepest secrets, as I have shared my own.

Now don’t misunderstand me.  I do harm my characters.  The dark nature of the worlds I create requires it.  From parasitic aliens slowly removing the very essence of humanity from those they conquer, to the ancient torture chambers of my upcoming fantasy novel, Black Rose, characters are pushed to their physical, emotional, and mental limits.  Yet within these aspects often lie the heart of the story.  The character’s struggle to overcome the obstacles which are laid before them and the suffering they endure throughout their journeys make them more real, human and relatable to the reader.  It also becomes a point of suspense, helping to place readers on the edge of their seats as they wonder which of their characters will survive – and which ones will not.

“Do not be afraid to harm your characters” was one of the first and most fundamental elements that I was ever taught by my long-time mentor.  It is also one of the elements of writing that I am still, almost a decade later, struggling to learn.  In order to write dark, tragic scenes well, it forces the author to tear apart the same characters which they have spent so much time bringing to life.  In my personal experience, these scenes have left me sad, upset, and angry.  They can also leave me exhausted and emotionally drained, as though I had been forced to physically accompany the characters on their journey.

Now, I am not stating that this experience is typical of every author.  In fact, there is a wide variance of methods, experiences, and tricks to writing such scenes. To help demonstrate just how varied these methods are, I will include a link to a list of ‘rules of writing’ recently published by The Guardian.  Some of which I agree with, some of which I do not.

The list can be found here:
http://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/feb/20/ten-rules-for-writing-fiction-part-one

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Let’s Talk about Research in Creative Writing

Sitting at a meeting of my writers group last week, I found myself speaking about the importance of conducting proper research when constructing a novel.  After a few minutes of discussion on what I consider to be one of the fundamental elements to craft of writing, several members of the group expressed their surprise at the amount of research I tend to conduct in the process of writing a novel.  Another asked the importance of research, given the rather fantastical genres in which I generally write.

Literary critic Georg Lukács stated that characters “once conceived in the vision of their creator, live an independent life of their own; their comings and goings, their development, their destiny is dictated by the inner dialectic of their social and individual existence.”  He believed that characters “try to live their own lives,” independent of the author who created them.  This strive for independence, in turn, frequently forces an author to research places, activities, and fields in which he or she has never before had an interest.

Now, it should be noted that Lukás was in fact, a realist and the majority of his theories were applied specifically to works which could be classified as realism.  However, the same principles are easily applied to works of fiction.  To draw an example from my own work, the novel I am currently writing, a YA fantasy series, revolves around a world of martial arts and medieval swordplay.  When I first informed one of my long-time mentors about my initial ideas for the novel, her response was something akin to this:  “Sounds great!  Just one quick question.  What do you know about martial arts and swordplay?”  The answer, to quote George R.R. Martin, was something akin to: “Stick them with the pointy end?”

So began my journey into researching various forms of combat.  I did this by first, reading lots of books on various forms of martial arts, reading fiction which featured elaborate fight scenes, and even watching a few old kung-fu movies.  Then, I attended classes at local karate and jiu-jitsu dojos.  Though I did not partake of the actual courses, I conducted multiple interviews with instructors and observed students for hours on end, having specific movements demonstrated for me by students while I took extensive notes on the technique, instruction, and history of both disciplines.  When I had eventually written and completed these scenes to the best of my ability, one of these instructors was kind enough to read through and critique my action sequences.

Several months ago at the Dublin Writers Festival, I listened to a speech given by bestselling author, Dan Brown.  Brown addressed the topic of research, by stating that his most extensive research lies in the locations he describes in his novels.  He makes a habit, especially for his most recent novels such as The Inferno, of visiting the places that he plans to describe.  This research allows him to describe the locations with vivid accuracy and incredible levels of description.

Research is an important and vital part of the creation of a novel, no matter what the genre.  While it is true that authors of speculative fiction might be able to take more liberties than those of non-fiction or realism, research still remains a vital part of the writing process.

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Writer’s Block…Fact or Fiction?

One of the most common terms in a writer’s vocabulary is ‘writer’s block.’  This ubiquitous term encompasses a vast plethora of arguments which writers use to justify why they have not written a word, despite the numerous hours, headaches, and tears spent in front of the blank page.

My long time writing mentor, a brilliant writer we will call “L”, is of a philosophy with which I have most reluctantly found myself in agreement when it comes to this subject: writer’s block does not actually exist.  Now, this is not to say that writing is easy or that there aren’t days where writers cannot find the time or words to craft their next chapter, scene, or even sentence.  Instead, what “L” means is that there is no magic, invisible force preventing the writer from putting pen to paper or fingers to keyboard.  Instead, the writer is being “blocked” (if you will) by some very real, identifiable issues.  Issues which, with time and practice, can be overcome.

Many possible solutions and suggestions exist in the idea of how to overcome the obstacles which might prevent one from writing.  As with many other facets of life, each method is not a perfect fit, and it may not be included here.  I offer only a partial list of what many professional writers recommend and have passed down to younger authors like myself.  It is up to you, the individual writer, to discover what method works best for you on a personal level.

For myself, the most simplistic solution I can give is that writing is a matter of habit.  The sooner an author gets into the habit of writing, the easier writing should become.  Developing habitual writing requires a person to write every single day.  Whether it is for fifteen minutes or several hours does not matter nearly as much as the act of writing itself.

This is a habit whose importance many professional authors stress.  For example, at a recent speech given during the Dublin Writer’s Festival, bestselling author Dan Brown (The DaVinci Code) stated that while writing a book, he sets his alarm somewhere between 4 and 5 AM every morning, every day of the year.  By doing this, Brown is able to ensure that he has time to write, undisturbed, for a least a few hours before other members of his household are even awake.  He states this helps eliminate distractions and helps him to focus.

Not a morning person?  (I know I am certainly not!)  Perhaps try writing at night instead.  Some of my best writing is done at the end of the day, when my other work is completed and I can use writing to help relax.  The time of day, much like the amount of time, is far less relevant when compared to the importance of forming the habit of writing on a daily basis.

Now, once the issue of finding and setting aside the time to write has been established, there comes the issue of finding the words to put on the page.  A common complaint is that, despite an author’s best efforts and their willingness to transcribe a character’s latest adventures, the character refuses to relate their tale to the author.

E.M. Forster once stated that characters, “arrive when evoked, but full of the spirit of mutiny.”   Because of this, an author must often find ways to negotiate and connect with their characters in, at times, unusual ways.  Personal favourites include 1) conducting an interview with the character in question 2) skipping ahead to a different scene or even 3) actually acting out the scene I am attempting to write (behind closed door with the curtains drawn with no audience… besides my cat).  All of these methods may serve to help you find new ways to speak to characters when they become silent or uncooperative.

As I previously stated, these are just a few possibilities that may help the next time your characters aren’t in a talkative mood or the words simply aren’t flowing.  Remember, like the majority of things in life, writing takes time, dedication, and often, lots and lots of practice.

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To Harm or not to Harm…the Protagonist

One of the most difficult lessons for any author to learn is to not be afraid to harm their characters.  Whether it takes weeks, months, or even years to create the stories which eager readers often finish in a matter of days, characters often have the ability to come to life upon the page.  For an author who has journeyed with characters through their creation, development, triumphs and failures, the thought of harming the characters is never easy.

I once listened to an author state that she had made a deal with her characters that she would stop harming any sub-character who the protagonist loved.  The problem, of course, was that a few novels in the series later, her protagonist had decided to love just about everyone.  The books, which were once a blend between a mystery and horror of a noir flavour, suddenly transformed into a safe novel, where the readers know for a fact that every major character will survive.  The novels lost their edge, that uncertainty that is created when one knows that no one is safe, not even the leading protagonist.

One writer who has successfully mastered this idea, without a doubt, is the author of the A Song of Fire and Ice series, George R.R. Martin.  Better known by its HBO title, Game of Thrones.  This series is full of competing protagonists in a world which seems contain only one unbreakable rule: No one is safe.  Martin seamlessly introduces and eliminates characters with each turn of the page.  This creates an emotional story-line and an air of uncertainty as readers remain uncertain as to who will be alive from chapter to chapter.

This tension helps to create a successful novel and prevents a given story from becoming predictable, repetitive, safe, and ultimately boring.  However, my personal experience shows that it can be extremely difficult act.  When I write, I embark on a deep and personal journey with my characters.  They become friends, confidants…even family.  Feelings of love, hate, frustration and friendship all exist within the various relationships created between myself and my characters.  The idea of harming, or even killing, the characters I have come to love as they have allowed me to journey with them is as hard if not harder for me as it is for any reader.  Breaking their hearts, their bodies, or taking their lives is an act which never gets easier.

Harming characters creates suspense, conflict and excitement within a story.  It creates the most emotional of moments, bringing intensity, uncertainty, and heartache into a given story.  Because of this, no matter how hard the act of harming characters becomes, it is still a necessarily part of the writing process for successful progression of a novel.  One of the keys to a good story is having characters, whether in a realistic or fantastical setting, seem as realistic as possible to both writer and reader.

In real life, bad things happen even to good people.  Ensuring the characters do not always leave a story unscathed is a way to reflect this realism which authors attempt to instill within their fictional worlds upon their characters.  The fact that a fictional character endures the same emotional and physical harms that people often find within their own lives, makes that character more real to readers by making it easier to share in their pain, as well as their joys.  It is because of this, that writers must so often work to overcome their inhibitions and be willing to harm the same characters that they worked so hard and lovingly to create.

Here’s another article with further thoughts on this topic:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mark-pryor/main-characters_b_5575533.html?utm_hp_ref=books

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